Neuroradiology Board Review – Brain Tumors – Case 17

Neuroradiology brain tumor board review. This lecture is geared towards the ABR core exam for residents, but it would be useful for review for the ABR certifying exam or certificate of added qualification (CAQ) exam for neuroradiology.

More description and the answer (spoiler!) are seen below the video.

In this case, we have an MRI showing a FLAIR and T2 hyperintense mass in the left insula with relatively ill-defined margins. On SWI, there are some areas of susceptibility that probably represent calcification, although blood products could look similar. Postcontrast images demonstrate little or no contrast enhancement.

1:33 The diagnosis is: oligodendroglioma

Oligodendrogliomas are gliomas which are now defined by the characteristic genetic features of IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion (loss of portions of both chromosomes 1 and 19). They can be WHO grade 2 (as in this case) or grade 3 (anaplastic oligodendroglioma). Theoretically, these lesions never degrade into WHO grade 4 lesions although the grade 3 lesions can be quite aggressive. In general, oligodendrogliomas have a better prognosis than their sister gliomas, astrocytomas. They respond better to radiation and have better overall survival.

Oligodendrogliomas are treated with a combination of resection and chemoradiotherapy.

The susceptibility seen within the tumor on this case represents areas of calcification. Oligodendrogliomas are one of the main considerations if you see an expansile tumor with calcification.