Fast 10: Neuroradiology high speed case review part 6 – Cases 51-60
In this 6th video, we present 10 more neuroradiology high speed review cases so you can review them quickly before your exams. If you want to see more information about these cases, you can find longer versions on the channel under the Board review playlist
Fast 10: Neuroradiology high speed case review part 5 – Cases 41-50
In this 5th video, we present 10 more neuroradiology high speed review cases so you can review them quickly before your exams. If you want to see more information about these cases, you can find longer versions on the channel under the Board review playlist
Cases included in this set: Subependymoma CNS lymphoma Metastatic disease to calvarium Meningioma Metastatic melanoma Hypothalamic hamartoma Pituitary adenoma (with hemorrhage/apoplexy) Pilocytic astrocytoma Cerebellopontine angle meningioma Glioblastoma
Be sure to check back in for the remainder of the high speed cases.
Fast 10: Neuroradiology high speed case review part 4 – Cases 31-40
In this fourth video, we present 10 more neuroradiology high speed review cases so you can review them quickly before your exams. If you want to see more information about these cases, you can find longer versions on the channel under the Board review playlist
Cases included in this set: Renal cell carcinoma Tuberculosis discitis osteomyelitis Osteosarcoma of the spine Ischemia with penumbra (tissue at risk) Traumatic spine epidural hematoma Thoracic spine meningioma Benign perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage Chiari malformation Traumatic vertebral artery injury Temporal lobe anatomy – fusiform gyrus
Be sure to check back in for the remainder of the high speed cases.
Fast 10: Neuroradiology high speed case review part 3 – Cases 21-30
In this third video, we present some 10 more neuroradiology high speed review cases so you can review them quickly before your exams. If you want to see more information about these cases, you can find longer versions on the channel under the Board review playlist
Fast 10: Neuroradiology high speed case review part 2 – Cases 11-20
In this second video, we present some 10 more neuroradiology high speed review cases so you can review them quickly before your exams. If you want to see more information about these cases, you can find longer versions on the channel under the Board review playlist
Fast 10: Neuroradiology high speed case review – Cases 1-10
In this video, we present some high speed review cases so you can review them quickly before your exams. This video has the first 10 review cases. We’ll spend about 1 minute on each case so you can learn as quickly as possible. If you want to see more information about these cases, you can find longer versions on the channel under the Board review playlist
Cases included in this set: Huntington’s disease Progressive supranuclear palsy Multisystem atrophy Creutzfeld-Jakob disease Parkinson’s disease Posterior reversible encephalopathy Leptomeningeal metastases Subdural hematoma Pyogenic abscess Artery of Percheron infarct
Be sure to check back in for the remainder of the high speed cases.
These videos focus on going quickly through neuroradiology cases, spending about 1 minute per case to get you through 10 cases in 10 minutes. Ideal for a quick review before an exam or neuroradiology rotation. An ideal way to go through a lot of cases quickly.
Each case shows a couple of images with a multiple choice question, followed by a quick review of the answer and the diagnosis.
Emergency Imaging of Brain Tumors: Complications & Summary
This video is the seventh and final video in an overview about the emergent approach to brain tumor imaging. This video talks about frequent complications you might see in the clinical care and imaging of brain tumor patients. The most important complications you need to be aware of are infarction, herniation, hemorrhage, tumor progression or radiation necrosis, and hydrocephalus.
This patient’s preoperative imaging shows a tumor in the left temporal lobe that you can see on CT and MRI. On post-op imaging, the tumor has been resected, but there is a wedge-shaped periphery of abnormal diffusion posterior to the cavity. Sometimes patients can have a thin rim of DWI abnormality after a resection, but this more than expected. This is a post-operative infarct. Remember, on delayed imaging this can have enhancement, but it will usually have a gyriform pattern which is different from the original tumor.
This is a patient who is 2 weeks into radiation therapy for a tumor in the right posterior temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Within this time, there is a lot more edema in the tumor bed with small areas of hemorrhage. The differential diagnosis here is acute radiation necrosis or rapidly worsening tumor. The MRI confirms that there is marked worsening of enhancement, mass effect, and tumor. This was diagnosed as rapid worsening of tumor and the patient was ultimately transferred for palliative care. Remember though that acute radiation necrosis and worsening tumor can have the same appearance.
Post-operative infection and hydrocephalus
This patient had a recent resection of a tumor with implantation of brachytherapy implants. The post-op pneumocephalus has improved, but ge has developed new postdural collections and new hydrocephalus. This was concerning for acute infection, and the patient was also febrile. This patient had an additional surgery to evacuate the fluid collections, wash out the wound, and place a ventricular drain.
Recap of complications
In summary, you can see a number of complications in patients with brain tumors, many of which will be visible on CT. When you have a suspicion for these things, you should communicate with the surgeons and neuro-oncologists as it can precipitate a change in management.
Lecture series summary
In this lecture, we’ve talked about the role of imaging in brain tumor patients, particularly in the emergent settings, including a review of the role of imaging, some common tumors, and common complications to be on the lookout for.
This video is the sixth video in an overview about the emergent approach to brain tumor imaging. This video talks about some of the common mimics for things that look like tumors. The most common diagnoses you need to be aware of are infection, abscess, and demyelination.
This case shows a CT in a patient that has hypodensity in the left medial temporal lobe. It is ill-defined and not well marginated. On CT, the differential is an acute encephalitis and tumor. Stroke is less likely given that it isn’t in a vascular distribution and doesn’t have the right clinical onset. The MRI shows really apparent swelling and edema/hyperintensity on T2 and FLAIR. Diffusion is also hyperintense. On post-contrast imaging, there is avid and solid nodular and ill-defined enhancement.
Herpes encephalitis is a dreaded intracranial infection that requires urgent recognition and treatment. It can be unilateral or bilateral, and is often asymmetric. Red flags include temporal involvement, acute clinical signs of illness, and not following a vascular distribution. These patients may have rapid progression. If no cause is found via clinical workup or lumbar puncture, these patients should get a follow-up in 6-12 weeks to ensure that it is improve and is not a tumor.
This case has a CT which shows marked edema in the left frontal lobe with a mass in the left frontal lobe adjacent to the frontal horn. It looks like the mass is peripherally hyperdense but hypodense centrally. It is not following a vascular distribution. Your differential diagnosis includes tumors, both primary tumors and metastatic disease. An MRI and systemic work-up for malignancy are justified. The MRI shows a mass with peripheral T2 hyperintensity and small areas of susceptibility which are probably blood products. On post-contrast imaging, the periphery is avidly enhancing with blurry margins. The DWI images are key and show pretty marked central diffusion hyperintensity which is dark on ADC.
This is a case of intracranial abscess. Brain abscesses are areas of pus and infection within the brain which have central diffusion restriction. Sometimes there are thinner along the ventricular margin. In many ways they can mimic tumors, but the central DWI hyperintensity which is “light-bulb” bright is a huge clue that you should suspect abscess. Red flags that should make you suspect infection are immune compromised patient, systemic signs of infection, rapid onset, and severe symptoms.
This patient has a CT which looks somewhat similar to the previous patient. There is a marked area of edema with sparing of the cortex in the left parietal lobe. There is no clear central mass that you see there, but given that it is vasogenic edema and there is mass effect you should be pretty suspicious. Your initial differential includes primary tumor and metastatic disease, but you want to see the MRI. The MRI shows a marked area of FLAIR and T2 hyperintensity. The area is markedly T1 hypointense but has heterogeneous and incomplete enhancement around the rim.
Tumefactive demyelination is associated with patients who have other demyelinating disease. In many cases, it’s going to be indistinguishable from tumor, but clues are sudden onset of symptoms and young age of the patient. Imaging features to look for are that incomplete rim of enhancement around the margin and the leading edge of abnormal diffusion.
When approaching a case that seems like a tumor, you have to remember that there are lesions that can mimic tumors. Systemic signs or clinical features can help you, but it can be particularly hard on CT alone. The next step is to get an MRI and work the patients up for their systemic features.
This video is the fifth video in an overview about the emergent approach to brain tumor imaging. This video talks about some of the other brain masses that you might encounter that are not primary brain parenchymal tumors. This includes other masses such as meningiomas, metastatic disease, lymphoma, and calvarial tumors.
This case shows a CT in a patient that has a hyperdense mass along the sphenoid wing. It is quite hard to see on CT, but the edema and mass effect on the frontal lobe is a great clue. It looks like an extra-axial mass that probably has some hyperostosis of the adjacent sphenoid wing. The MRI confirms the finding that there is a mass there and that it is extra-axial. Its appearance is avidly enhancing and pretty homogeneous.
Meningiomas are the most common intracranial primary tumors and most common extra-axial masses. They are relatively homogeneous, avidly enhancing, and can have FDG uptake on a PET, so make sure you don’t confuse them with a metastasis on PET. Also remember that even low-grade meningiomas can have edema. It is very challenging to tell if there is brain invasion on imaging and that is often a pathologic distinction.
This patient has a very striking CT with a number of high density lesions scattered throughout the posterior fossa and supratentorial brain. These are sufficiently dense that they look like hemorrhage. A few of the larger lesions have edema around them. The differential leads of with metastatic disease, although trauma, infection, and amyloid would be some of your alternate considerations. The MRI confirms the presence of these masses. Some of them have intrinsic T1 hyperintensity from the blood products that are present, but others are enhancing. There are numerous lesions.
Metastases are common brain masses and can be seen in a variety of tumors such as lung, breast, melanoma, renal, and melanoma. About half of brain metastases are solitary, so don’t let that fool you. Hemorrhage is common, and the presence of multiple lesions should point you down a search for primary tumors.
On this case, we start with a CT that shows a hyperdense mass in the midline cerebellum with surrounding edema, possibly a hyperdense mass in the left caudate, and hydrocephalus. For this case, you want to think about multiple masses, such as lymphoma, infection, and metastatic disease. The MRI really highlights how involved the posterior fossa and periventricular white matter are. Masses with intermediate to low T2 make you think about lymphoma or granulomatous disease. The solid enhancement and periventricular involvement are very suspicious for lymphoma, as is the DWI hyperintensity.
Primary CNS lymphoma is a relatively rare disease associated with HIV and other immunosuppression. It commonly presents with periventricular and basal ganglia involvement. It is often solid but can be ring enhancing in an immune compromised patient.
This CT shows a calvarial lesion along the left frontal and parietal convexity. There is a lot of edema in the underlying brain and it has an intracranial and extracranial component, but it is primarily centered in the bone.
When you see a case centered in the bone, your differential should include:
You may not be able to differentiate these on CT or even MRI. The MRI in this case shows an expanded bone, relatively T2 hypointense appearance, and striations radiating out from the bone. This is a classic appearance for a meningioma. B-cell lymphoma and myeloma can have a very similar case.
When you approach brain tumors, think about whether they are in the parenchyma or extra-axial and also consider whether they are multiple, which can help guide you towards another diagnosis. For most tumors you’re going to need an MRI and potentially a biopsy to make the final diagnosis.
Be sure to tune in for upcoming videos which will cover tumor mimics and some red flags to be alert to in the ER setting.