Board Review 3 – Case 4

Neuroradiology board review. This lecture is geared towards the ABR core exam for residents, but it would be useful for review for the ABR certifying exam or certificate of added qualification (CAQ) exam for neuroradiology.

More description and the answer (spoiler!) are seen below the video.

This case shows an expansile extra-axial mass along the left frontal and parietal calvarium. On CT, it is hyperdense to the adjacent brain and it is causing mass effect and edema in the surrounding brain.On MRI, it is relatively T2 homogenous, appears to be arising outside the brain, and enhances homogenously and avidly.

The diagnosis is: meningioma

Aggressive extra-axial lesions, particularly those causing cortical destruction, have a differential including metastasis, meningioma, lymphoma, and myeloma. You may not be able to differentiate these by imaging.

Meningiomas are the most common brain tumors and most common extra-axial masses. They range in aggressiveness from WHO grade 1 (typical), grade 2 (atypical), and grade 3 (anaplastic), which is determined primarily on histologic features and not imaging criteria. Grade 1 tumors are treated with resection while grades 2 and 3 receive resection followed by radiation therapy.