Board Review 3 – Case 2

Neuroradiology board review. This lecture is geared towards the ABR core exam for residents, but it would be useful for review for the ABR certifying exam or certificate of added qualification (CAQ) exam for neuroradiology.

More description and the answer (spoiler!) are seen below the video.

This case shows a nodular multifocal mass along the walls of the ventricles. It is relatively low intensity on T2, hyperintense on DWI, and enhances avidly with a nodular solid pattern.

The diagnosis is: CNS lymphoma

Primary CNS lymphoma is a B-cell malignancy with relatively low incidence but overall poor outcomes. It is more common in immunocompromised or HIV patients. The most common locations are in periventricular white matter, the basal ganglia, and the corpus callosum. Solid nodular enhancement, T2 hypointensity, and low ADC values are characteristic. In fact, lower ADC values are associated with a poorer prognosis.

HIV and immunocompromised patients are more likely to have variable enhancement patterns, such as rim enhancement with central necrosis.